Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate, the gland that produces the liquid part of the semen. This is the most common reproductive system disease in mature men. Acute bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare disease, its frequency does not exceed three percent of all inflammatory processes in the prostate.
Causes of Acute Prostatitis
The main cause of acute prostatitis in men is bacteria, some of which belong to the normal microbiota of the body, that is, they live constantly on the skin in the intestine. Once in the tissues and ducts of the prostate, they cause acute inflammation.
Infection can enter the prostate in two ways:
- ascending canalicular - bacteria with urethritis, cystitis, after cystoscopy get into the prostate.
- hematogenous - microbes invade the prostate with blood flow from distant foci of acute and chronic infections - boils, carbuncles, sinusitis, diseased teeth and tonsils.
In addition to bacteria, the stagnation of the prostate secretion and the stagnation of the venous blood, which develop with irregular sexual activity with infrequent intercourse, with prolonged movement restrictions, especially when sitting and wearing tight underwear, are important.
The gland is made up of two sections - the follicles, where the secretion is produced, and the excretory ducts, through which the liquid part of the semen enters the urethra. Depending on which part of the prostate is inflamed, there are different forms of acute prostatitis in men and they are treated with different methods.
Signs of acute prostatitis
Symptoms of acute prostatitis depend on the shape and severity of the inflammatory process. Doctors distinguish between three forms:
- catarrhal.The main symptoms are urination disorders. The excretory ducts become inflamed, the prostate enlarges and blocks the urethra, thereby prolonging urination, accompanied by pain and burning sensation in the urethra. There are nocturnal urges, the patient suffers from insomnia.
- follicular.As the process continues, the tissues of the follicles begin to fester. Urinary tract diseases are accompanied by pain in the perineum, radiating into the anus, the temperature rises to 38 degrees.
- Parenchyma.The follicles continue to fester and many small abscesses form. Difficulty urinating, becomes very painful, pain occurs when defecating. The temperature rises to forty, in the groin, perineum, sacrum - sharp pain.
The urologist makes a diagnosis based on a comprehensive study that includes:
- Rectal Exam.The urologist inserts a finger into the patient's anus and feels the gland, determines the increase in volume and pain, and concludes that it is an inflammatory process.
- General urinalysis.When analyzing urine, leukocytes, blood, bacteria and protein are determined. These are non-specific indicators of urinary tract inflammation, they cannot be used to infer a specific site of inflammation.
- Bacteriological analysis of urine.Urine culture for sterility allows you to isolate the microbes that caused inflammation, determine their type, resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Ultrasound of the prostate.Ultrasound examination reveals a change in size, indicates lumps, formations and abscesses.
- MRI or CT scan of the pelvis.It is performed in preparation for an operation or to differentiate prostate tumors.
- Blood test on PSA.Prostate-specific antigen is a protein that is secreted by the prostate. Its content increases in diseases of the prostate - prostatitis, adenoma and malignant tumors of the prostate. The analysis is carried out for the differential diagnosis of tumors, since the PSA values are significantly higher in cancer than in prostatitis.
Complications of acute prostatitis
If the correct treatment of acute prostatitis is not started in a timely manner, it can lead to the development of the following complications:
- Prostate abscess.If prostatitis is left untreated, sooner or later small abscesses will merge into one large one called an abscess. This complication is only treated in a timely manner by opening the prostate and carefully removing the pus from there.
- Inflammation of the paraprostatic venous plexus.Inflammation of the prostate can spread to the surrounding veins. The large numbers of bacteria released into the bloodstream lead to a systemic inflammatory response - sepsis - that can be fatal.
- Paraprostatitis.It occurs when an abscess breaks into tissue surrounding the prostate. Treat promptly only.
- Transition to a chronic form.Acute prostatitis without treatment becomes chronic, which requires several years of treatment. Fifty percent of patients with chronic prostatitis develop mental disorders that require correction with antidepressants and sedatives.
What to do with acute prostatitis
A patient with an acute attack of prostatitis needs to be hospitalized urgently. Treatment for acute prostatitis should be done in a hospital and includes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, and tonics.
Antibacterial therapy includes broad spectrum active ingredients and is prescribed for long periods of time - from fifteen to thirty days, until the bacteria are completely destroyed. For acute prostatitis, doctors usually use the following antibiotics and antibacterial drugs:
- Fluoroquinolones- levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin;
- Cephalosporins- cefotaxime, ceftriaxone.
In addition to antibiotics for acute prostatitis, the following drugs are used:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac) - helps relieve pain;
- bioregulatory peptides (prostate extract, Vitaprost, Prostatilen) - used in the form of suppositories. In addition to producing the liquid part of the semen, the prostate also has a regulating function by releasing hormones. Suppositories help to make up for the hormone deficiency and avoid related complications.
Do not self-medicate - it's dangerous! Do not use folk remedies such as prostate massage - secretions and pus, once in the blood, cause sepsis, which can be fatal. If you notice signs of acute prostatitis, call an ambulance or see a doctor right away.
Sex with acute prostatitis is contraindicated. First, severe pain in the perineum and sacrum, high temperature, are absolutely not suitable for sexual intercourse. Second, the partner is at risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.
Acute prostatitis prevention
Acute prostatitis is much easier to prevent than it is to cure. It is enough to consider a few important points:
- conduct thorough personal hygiene, treat cystitis and urethritis in a timely manner;
- have sex regularly to avoid stagnation of prostate secretion;
- avoid sexually transmitted diseases;
- treat boils, carbuncles in a timely manner, monitor the health of your teeth;
- wear loose cotton underwear;
- Get enough physical activity to avoid congestion in the veins of the prostate.
Treatment of prostatitis should be carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor. The specialist develops an examination program, creates an individual diagnostic scheme.
It is important to see a doctor at the first suspicion of pathology. Failure to pay attention to symptoms or self-medication can make the situation much more difficult. Timely and professional medical help will help cope with the disease and avoid complications.
Symptoms and causes of prostatitis
As a rule, when they talk about the treatment of prostatitis, they mean the chronic stage of the pathology. This is because the acute phase lasts only a few days and often does not cause serious worries for a man. As a result, the inflammatory process becomes chronic, and the treatment of prostatitis is significantly delayed.
Acute prostatitis can be recognized by the following signs:
- Pain in the perineum and scrotum,
- Cramps in the lower abdomen
- Weakening of the erection,
- Lack of voluntary erection in the morning.
Such symptoms can appear all at the same time or individually. After a few days they disappear or decrease significantly. That is exactly the danger of the disease. Without qualified help, prostatitis becomes chronic. This phase is characterized by:
- increased urination,
- a decrease in the amount of urine excreted,
- Weakening of the jet when urinating,
- erectile dysfunction,
- Pain in the pelvis, perineum.
Each of these symptoms is a reason to see a doctor. In our clinic, a urologist on Leninsky will precisely determine the cause of the disease and prescribe effective treatment.
Establishing the etiology of prostatitis is one of the most important tasks when choosing a therapeutic approach. There are several main causes of the disease:
- sexually transmitted infections - chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis and others,
- Bacteria - enter the prostate through the urethra, with the blood or lymph flow,
- Hypothermia - causes inflammation of the prostate, which, as in other cases, quickly becomes chronic.
All necessary examinations to determine the causes and treatment of prostatitis can be carried out in our clinic. The examination program is created individually by the urologist.
Diagnosis of the disease
The mandatory methods of diagnosing prostatitis include:
- general urinalysis,
- microscopic examination of the prostate secretion,
- Ultrasound of the prostate.
Depending on the individual clinical picture, the urologist can prescribe further examinations. If you suspect sexually transmitted prostatitis, it is recommended that you get tested for sexually transmitted diseases at Leninsky Prospect. Based on the results of a comprehensive diagnosis, the specialist draws up a treatment regimen for prostatitis.
Treatment of prostatitis is often carried out using conservative methods. Antibiotic therapy forms the basis. With the help of antibiotics, pathogens are eliminated, inflammation of the prostate is eliminated. Modern drugs well penetrate the tissues of the prostate and eliminate the main cause of the pathology. In addition, the doctor may prescribe alpha blockers, hormones, and muscle relaxants.
Another effective technique is prostate massage. It restores the patency of the ducts, improves blood flow to the prostate and increases its tone. It is most commonly used in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis, the presence of pelvic pain syndrome.
The duration of the course depends on the individual clinical picture. It is important that the treatment of prostatitis in the clinic is not aimed at relieving symptoms, but rather at eliminating the main cause of the pathology. This approach allows you to get rid of a chronic illness and prevent relapse.